Sorry for the late reply!
There isn't any function like that in our Entity Framework API at the moment. You could use the Data Objects API instead. It would be something like:
// Assume that doContext is a DataObjectContext that connects to your store
var item = doContext.GetDataObject("http://mydomain.com/individual/210d0d37-ff74-4df1-883a-fee0c962c042");
Note that an item can potentially have multiple types. Most of the time it will only be one, but if you use some of the more advanced features of the Entity Framework it is possible to have items with multiple types assigned.
I guess that this is something we could surface through the EntityFramework somehow. I wonder though if it would be better to provide the types as a list of the EF interfaces that the object supports rather than a list of the type URIs.